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The First 1000 days of life.
Factors impacting on the Microbiome

Scientifically reviewed by
Fathalla Ali, Bsc MSc, MPH and PHD student UNSW


  1. Zacarías, M. F., Collado, M. C., Gómez-Gallego, C., Flinck, H., Aittoniemi, J., Isolauri, E., & Salminen, S. (2018). Pregestational overweight and obesity are associated with differences in gut microbiota composition and systemic inflammation in the third trimester. PloS one13(7), e0200305.

  2. Sohn, K., & Underwood, M. A. (2017). Prenatal and postnatal administration of prebiotics and probiotics. Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine22(5), 284–289.

  3. Stokholm, J., Schjørring, S., Eskildsen, C. E., Pedersen, L., Bischoff, A. L., Følsgaard, N., Carson, C. G., Chawes, B. L., Bønnelykke, K., Mølgaard, A., Jacobsson, B., Krogfelt, K. A., & Bisgaard, H. (2014). Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 20(7), 629–635.

  4. Raspini, B., Porri, D., De Giuseppe, R., Chieppa, M., Liso, M., Cerbo, R. M., Civardi, E., Garofoli, F., Monti, M. C., Vacca, M., De Angelis, M., & Cena, H. (2020). Prenatal and postnatal determinants in shaping offspring’s microbiome in the first 1000 days: study protocol and preliminary results at one month of life. Italian journal of pediatrics46(1), 45.

  5. Chernikova, D. A., Madan, J. C., Housman, M. L., Zain-Ul-Abideen, M., Lundgren, S. N., Morrison, H. G., Sogin, M. L., Williams, S. M., Moore, J. H., Karagas, M. R., & Hoen, A. G. (2018). The premature infant gut microbiome during the first 6 weeks of life differs based on gestational maturity at birth. Pediatric research84(1), 71–79.

  6. Stearns, J. C., Simioni, J., Gunn, E., McDonald, H., Holloway, A. C., Thabane, L., Mousseau, A., Schertzer, J. D., Ratcliffe, E. M., Rossi, L., Surette, M. G., Morrison, K. M., & Hutton, E. K. (2017). Intrapartum antibiotics for GBS prophylaxis alter colonization patterns in the early infant gut microbiome of low risk infants. Scientific reports, 7(1), 16527.

  7. Pannaraj, P. S., Li, F., Cerini, C., Bender, J. M., Yang, S., Rollie, A., Adisetiyo, H., Zabih, S., Lincez, P. J., Bittinger, K., Bailey, A., Bushman, F. D., Sleasman, J. W., & Aldrovandi, G. M. (2017). Association Between Breast Milk Bacterial Communities and Establishment and Development of the Infant Gut Microbiome. JAMA pediatrics171(7), 647–654.

  8. Bokulich, N. A., Chung, J., Battaglia, T., Henderson, N., Jay, M., Li, H., D Lieber, A., Wu, F., Perez-Perez, G. I., Chen, Y., Schweizer, W., Zheng, X., Contreras, M., Dominguez-Bello, M. G., & Blaser, M. J. (2016). Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life. Science translational medicine8(343), 343ra82.

  9. Exposure to household furry pets influences the gut microbiota of infant at 3-4 months following various birth scenarios

  10. Singh, R. K., Chang, H. W., Yan, D., Lee, K. M., Ucmak, D., Wong, K., Abrouk, M., Farahnik, B., Nakamura, M., Zhu, T. H., Bhutani, T., & Liao, W. (2017). Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. Journal of translational medicine15(1), 73.

  11. McKeen, S., Young, W., Mullaney, J., Fraser, K., McNabb, W. C., & Roy, N. C. (2019). Infant Complementary Feeding of Prebiotics for the Microbiome and Immunity. Nutrients11(2), 364.

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