The Persistent Effects of Birth Mode on Gut Microbiota Composition, Immune System Development and Antimicrobial Resistance

It is believed that mode of birth (Vaginal or Caesarean) has a significant effect on early gut microbiota acquisition and development. Globally, the rate of caesarean birth is consistently increasing as a result of multiple factors. Among these factors are the increase in the overall income and the easy access to health facilities. In 2015, around 29.7 million births happened by caesarean, accounting for about 18% of the births in 169 countries.